Obesity is a complex chronic multifactorial disease. It comes from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Therefore it is considered as the consequence of an altered connection between calorific income and energy consumption.
In the Western collective imagination, the idea of food has always been linked to prosperity. In reality, however, the excessive feeding, together with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, poses serious health risks both in terms of mortality and morbidity.
There is a correlation between the excess body weight and its severity. To measure this correlation, it ìs commonly used the Index of Body Mass Index or Body Mass Index (BMI), which indicates the ratio between body weight in kilograms and the height expressed in square meters (Kg / m2).
Based on BMI, different groups of subjects are distinguished, with nonlinear distribution of risk:
- Normal weight: BMI between 18.5 and 24.9
- Overweight: BMI between 25.0 and 29.9
- 1st degree of obesity: BMI between 30.0 and 34.9
- 2nd degreee of obesity: BMI between 35.0 and 39.9
- 3rd grade of obesity: BMI greater than 40
In order to assess the risks of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, it is also necessary to consider the areas of the body where the fat is accumulated. For example, peripheral or subcutaneous obesity, with an increase in obesity in the pelvis and thighs, results in lower danger compared with the accumulation of fat in the abdominal region, and therefore abdominal or visceral obesity which is most closely related to possible complications, Cardiovascular and metabolic.
There are numerous obesity-related diseases. In particolar: cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricaemia and gout, biliary calculus, turbulence of the sexual sphere, neoplasms, osteoarticular cargo diseases, venous varicose veins at the lower extremities and psychological problems.